Stroke, also known as brain infarction or cerebral infarction, is a general term used to describe conditions where there is a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain or ruptures in the blood vessels resulting in damage to a specific area of the brain. This leads to the death of nerve cells and disruption of brain functions.
The symptoms of a stroke can vary from person to person, but common symptoms include decreased muscle control on one side of the face, difficulty speaking, vision problems, dizziness, loss of balance, and severe headache. Stroke can occur suddenly or worsen gradually in a specific region over time.
Stroke is generally categorized into two types: ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. Ischemic stroke occurs when there is a blockage in the blood flow to the brain tissue, which can be caused by a blood clot or a narrowed blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke, on the other hand, occurs due to bleeding in the brain and can be caused by factors such as an aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, or high blood pressure.
The treatment of stroke requires immediate medical intervention. In the case of ischemic stroke, early intervention may involve clot-dissolving medications or clot-retrieval treatments. In the case of hemorrhagic stroke, the goal is to control the bleeding and reduce brain pressure. Rehabilitation is also a crucial part of the treatment process, which may include restoring movement, speech therapy, and lifestyle modifications.
Stroke can have serious consequences and significantly impact the quality of life of affected individuals. Therefore, it is important to recognize the risk factors for stroke, make healthy lifestyle choices, maintain controlled blood pressure, engage in regular exercise, and undergo regular medical check-ups as preventive measures.